A. Indications for gestational surrogacy -
- 1. After hysterectomy
- 2. Congenital absence of uterus
- 3. Recurrent abortions
- 4. Repeated failure of IVF treatment
- 5. Severe medical conditions incompatible with life
- Legal Rationale: -
The intended parents/Commissioning Couple may enter into a surrogacy arrangement
1. Infertility: Female infertility, or other medical issues, which may make the
pregnancy or delivery risky.
- 2.Risky pregnancy: The intended mother could also be fertile and healthy, and prefer
the convenience of someone else undergoing pregnancy and labor for her.
- 3. Same sex couple: Surrogacy can help the same sex couples realize there dream
of having their own child which is otherwise not possible for them to have a child
of their own by natural way.
- 4. Single parent: For those who want to fulfill their desire of having a child sans
a partner, surrogacy is a ray of hope.
- For female -
1. Anatomical defects of the reproductive tract, where direct coitus is not possible
- 2. Psychological sexual dysfunction – dysparuenia, vaginismus.
- 3. Cervical factors i.e. poor sperm-mucus interaction, failed post-coital test,
- 4. Ovulatory dysfunction
- 5. Unexplained infertility
- 6. Minimal endometriosis
It has been universally observed that whenever IUI is combined with induction of
ovulation or controlled ovarian stimulation, the success rate in the form of pregnancy
is improved. Depositing actively motile sperm free from debris, leucocytes, pus
cells, and dead sperm has a significant reproductive advantage in fertilizing the
released oocyte from the ovary, in the fallopian tube. During natural intercourse,
semen is deposited in the vagina, motile sperm from the semen move towards fallopian
tube. Out of around 100 million sperm from a ‘normal’ man deposited in the vagina,
only about 1 million sperm find their way to the upper portion of the uterine cavity
and only few hundred enter the tube where fertilization occurs. In IUI, 5-10 million
motile sperm are deposited at the top of the uterine cavity near the opening of
the tubes thus significantly increasing the chances of healthy sperm reaching the
The risk of infection with IUI is very small.
A woman needing artificial insemination to achieve pregnancy can obtain a sperm
sample from her male partner or sperm from sperm donation may be used if, for example,
the woman’s partner produces too few motile sperm, or if he carries a genetic disorder,
or if the woman has no male partner. Sperm is usually obtained through masturbation
or the use of an electrical stimulator, although a special condom, known as a collection
condom, may be used to collect the semen during intercourse.
A woman’s menstrual cycle is closely observed, by tracking basal body temperature
and changes in vaginal mucus, or using ovulation kits, ultrasounds or blood tests.
When using intrauterine insemination (IUI), the sperm must have been “washed” in
a laboratory and concentrated and warmed to 37C. The process of “washing” the sperm
increases the chances of fertilization and removes any mucus and non-motile sperm
in the semen. Pre and post concentration of motile sperm is counted.
For donor sperm, sperm from a sperm bank will be frozen and quarantined for a particular
period of six months and the donor will be retested before and after production
of the sample to ensure that he does not carry a transmissible disease. Sperm samples
donated in this way are commonly produced through masturbation by the sperm donor
at the sperm bank. A chemical known as a cryoprotectant is added to the sperm to
aid the freezing and thawing process.
If sperm is provided by a private donor, either directly or through a sperm agency,
it is usually supplied fresh, not frozen, and it will not be quarantined. Donor
sperm provided in this way may be given directly to the recipient woman or her partner,
or it may be transported in specially insulated containers.
C. Procedure -
When an ovum is released, semen provided by the woman’s male partner, or by a sperm
donor, is introduced into the woman’s vagina or uterus. The semen may be fresh or
it may be frozen semen which has been thawed.
A method of artificial insemination is to insert semen directly into the woman’s
uterus. Where this method is employed it is important that only ‘washed’ semen be
used and this is inserted into the uterus by means of a catheter. ‘Washed’ semen
is used to eliminate the risk of cramping. Semen is occasionally inserted twice
within a ‘treatment cycle’.
A pregnancy resulting from artificial insemination will be no different from a pregnancy
achieved by sexual intercourse. However, there may be a slight increased likelihood
of multiple births if drugs are used by the woman for a ‘stimulated’ cycle. To have
optimal chances with IUI, the female should be under 30 years of age, and the man
should have a TMS of more than 5 million per ml. In practice, donor sperm will satisfy
these criteria. A promising cycle is one that offers two follicles measuring more
than 16 mm, and estrogen of more than 500 pg/mL on the day of HCG administration.
A short period of ejaculatory abstinence before intrauterine insemination is associated
with higher pregnancy rates.
Other Techniques -
a) Intracervical insemination
Intracervical insemination (ICI) is the easiest way to inseminate. This involves
the deposit of raw fresh or frozen semen (which has been thawed) and which has been
provided by the woman’s partner into the cervix usually by injecting it with a needleless
syringe. Where fresh semen is used this must be allowed to liquefy before inserting
The syringe should be inserted carefully so that the tip is as close to the entrance
to the cervix as possible. The woman should be comfortable at all times. A vaginal
speculum may be used to hold open the vagina so that the cervix may be observed
and the syringe inserted more accurately through the open speculum. The plunger
is then pushed forward and the semen in the syringe is emptied into the vagina.
The syringe (and speculum if used) may be left in place for several minutes and
the woman is advised to lie still for half-an-hour or so to assist fertilization.
Timing is critical as the window and opportunity for fertilization, is little more
than 12 hours from the release of the ovum. For each woman who goes through this
process be it AI (artificial insemination) or NI (natural insemination); to increase
chances for success, an understanding of her rhythm or natural cycle is very important.
Advanced technical (medical) procedures may be used to increase the chances of conception.
b) Intrauterine tuboperitoneal insemination
Intrauterine tuboperitoneal insemination (IUTPI) is insemination where both the
uterus and fallopian tubes are filled with insemination fluid. The cervix is clamped
to prevent leakage to the vagina, best achieved with the specially designed Double
Nut Bivalve (DNB) speculum. IUTPI can be useful in unexplained infertility, mild
or moderate male infertility, and mild or moderate endometriosis. In non-tubal sub
fertility, fallopian tube sperm perfusion may be the preferred technique over intrauterine
c) Intratubal insemination
IUI can furthermore be combined with intratubal insemination (ITI), into the Fallopian
tube although this procedure is no longer generally regarded as having any beneficial
effect compared with IUI.
E) Pregnancy rate
Success rates or pregnancy rates for artificial insemination may be very misleading,
since many factors including the age and health of the recipient have to be included
to give a meaningful answer, e.g. definition of success and calculation of the total
population. For couples with unexplained infertility, unstimulated IUI is no more
effective than natural means of conception.
The pregnancy rate also depends on the total sperm count, or, more specifically,
the total motile sperm count (TMSC), used in a cycle. It increases with increasing
TMSC, but only up to a certain count, when other factors become limiting to success.
The summed pregnancy rate of two cycles using a TMSC of 5 million in each cycle
is substantially higher than one single cycle using a TMSC of 10 million. However,
although more cost-efficient, using a lower TMSC also increases the average time
taken before getting pregnant.
For further information go to the Asian Surrogacy Website